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Drinking green tea, coffee lowers risk of death for stroke and heart attack survivors

When compared with participants who rarely drank green tea, stroke survivors who consumed at least seven cups of green tea daily lowered their risk of all-cause mortality by approximately 62%.

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Stroke and heart attack survivors can reduce multiple causes of death and prevent further cardiovascular events by drinking green tea, according to new research published today in Stroke, a journal of the American Stroke Association, a division of the American Heart Association. The study also found daily coffee consumption helps heart attack survivors by lowering their risk of death after a heart attack and can prevent heart attacks or strokes in healthy individuals.

Previous research has examined the benefits of green tea and coffee on heart health in people without a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer. Researchers in the study “Green tea and coffee consumption and all-cause mortality among persons with and without stroke or myocardial infarction” sought to determine the effects of green tea and coffee consumption after surviving a stroke or heart attack.

“There is a strong need for scientific evidence on the lifestyles among survivors of stroke and heart attack considering the rapidly aging population and the need to improve life expectancy following these cardiovascular events,” says Hiroyasu Iso, M.D., a professor of public health at Osaka University in Suita, Japan, and the study’s corresponding author.

Researchers analyzed data of more than 46,000 participants (ages 40 to 79, 60% female) from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC study), a study conducted in 45 communities across Japan. Participants were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires that included information about demographics, lifestyle, medical history and diet. People were then divided into three groups: history of stroke; history of myocardial infarction (MI); and no history of stroke or MI. Researchers then analyzed the amount and frequency of green tea and coffee consumption. Researchers noted that a typical cup of green tea contains approximately 100mL (about 3.4 ounces) of liquid, and a typical cup of coffee contains approximately 150mL (about 5 ounces) of liquid.

Results include:

  • When compared with participants who rarely drank green tea, stroke survivors who consumed at least seven cups of green tea daily lowered their risk of all-cause mortality by approximately 62%. Researchers did not observe a statistically significant association among participants without a history of stroke or heart attack.
  • Heart attack survivors who drank one cup of coffee a day reduced their overall risk of death by approximately 22% when compared to those who did not regularly drink coffee.
  • People without a history of stroke or heart attack who consumed one or more cups of coffee a week had approximately a 14% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to non-coffee drinkers.
  • Green tea consumption can prevent further cardiovascular events in survivors, while drinking coffee can prevent such events in healthy individuals.

“An important distinction to make is that in Japanese culture, green tea is generally prepared with water and without sugar. Additionally, coffee is prepared with water and occasionally milk and sugar,” said Iso. “The healthiest way to prepare these beverages is without an unnecessary amount of added sugars.”

Researchers note that this study was observational, and the reason why drinking green tea and coffee lowered the risk of heart attack and stroke cannot be determined. Further research is needed to understand the details in the different effects of green tea and coffee.

Co-authors are Masayui Teramoto, M.D.; Iso Muraki, M.D, Ph.D.; Kazumasa Yamagishi, M.D., Ph.D.; Akiko Tamakoshi, M.D., Ph.D.

Fitness

5 Ways to find your morning workout motivation

If you’re looking to make your early workout successful and one you’ll actually stick with, consider these tips.

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Photo by Anastase Maragos from Unsplash.com

For many people, hitting the gym in the morning leaves less time for excuses or interferences.

However, finding the motivation to get up and work out first thing can be a huge hurdle. If you’re looking to make your early workout successful and one you’ll actually stick with, consider these tips:

1. Get Out of Bed, No Matter What

Making the first move may be the hardest part. Try setting two alarms and keeping them away from your bed. Walking across the room immediately after your alarm sounds gets you up and helps deter you from pressing snooze. Even sleeping in your (clean) workout clothes can make it easier to get going once you’re up.

2. Find a Workout Buddy

Having a partner can be motivational and help hold you accountable. It’s oftentimes easier to push through a tough workout when someone else is keeping you in check.

3. Commit to a Class

There are many ways to work out in the morning, and it’s up to you to decide what kind of exercise is best suited for your fitness goals. Consider the potential benefits of a scheduled class: working out with a group gives you an appointment to keep, a set time and place and an instructor and team to push and encourage you even when you feel like giving up.

4. Refuel for the Day (and Workouts) Ahead

Post-workout nutrition is critical to refueling your body after a tough workout, allowing you to take on the day ahead. Try lowfat chocolate milk. Its carb-to-protein ratio has been scientifically shown to effectively refuel exhausted muscles. The sugar in chocolate milk is the secret to its ratio, one that elite athletes have trusted for years. And you may be surprised to learn that chocolate milk also naturally contains the same electrolytes added to commercial sports drinks.

5. Give Yourself a Break

Keep in mind that after exhaustive endurance exercise, your body needs rest time (24-48 hours) to adequately replace your depleted glycogen stores. Take some time to let your body and mind prep for the next workout.

For additional workout and recovery inspiration, visit BuiltWithChocolateMilk.com.

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Fitness

Resistance training paired with peanut protein affects muscle health in older adults

Evidence-based and cost-effective lifestyle interventions, such as resistance training (RT) and ensuring optimal dietary protein intake, aim to increase muscle mass in older individuals, and support healthy aging and longevity.

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Photo by Scott Webb from Unsplash.com

Declines in muscle mass and strength can begin in early adulthood, unnoticeable at first, and eventually progress until functionality, endurance, and general health may be compromised. Evidence-based and cost-effective lifestyle interventions, such as resistance training (RT) and ensuring optimal dietary protein intake, aim to increase muscle mass in older individuals, and support healthy aging and longevity.

Now, as the popularity and consumer demand for plant-based protein to support exercise training grows, the full array of essential and non-essential amino acids and high protein digestibility of defatted peanut protein powder (PP) makes it an exceptional plant-based protein option. Yet, no studies to date have examined if PP combined with RT can enhance training adaptations and measures of muscle mass, function and strength, especially in an older population. For the first time, a randomized controlled clinical trial from researchers at Auburn University published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition demonstrates that in combination with RT, intake of PP positively affects select markers of muscle growth and strength among untrained, older adults.

“Many of the previous studies in this space have looked at how animal-based or soy protein-based supplements enhance the response to resistance training,” says Dr. Roberts, PhD, a co-principal investigator on the study from Auburn University in the School of Kinesiology. “This study suggests that pairing resistance training with supplemental peanut powder may be an effective plant-based protein solution to meet protein needs and perhaps slow or prevent age-related loss of muscle in older adults.”

Thirty-nine older, untrained individuals completed a six-week or ten-week supervised RT program, where full-body training was implemented twice weekly. Participants were also randomly assigned to consume either a PP supplement mixed with 16 fl. oz. of water once per day (75 total grams of powder providing 30 grams protein, >9.2 grams of essential amino acids, ~315 calories) or be a “wait-list” control who did not receive any supplement (CTL). On workout days, PP supplements were provided immediately following exercise and compliance was monitored by trained study personnel. Skeletal muscle biopsies and other markers of muscle quality, body composition and strength, as well as three-day self-reported habitual food intake, were collected.

PP supplementation significantly increased knee flexion peak torque – a marker of muscle strength – in the ten-week cohort relative to the CTL group. In looking at the combined data from both the six- and ten-week groups, PP participants experienced significant increases in vastus lateralis (VL) thickness – a measure of muscle growth – compared to CTL participants. Notably, the consumption of protein and fiber significantly increased during the study in the PP group compared to CTL. This is attributed to the ~15 grams per day of fiber and 30 grams per day of protein received from the nutritional supplement. Surprisingly, PP supplementation after one bout of resistance exercise did not enhance muscle protein synthesis rates within a 24-hour period following the first training bout. Body composition was not different between the PP and CTL groups.

“There is strong evidence to suggest protein needs, specifically, the intake of more essential amino acids, increase with age due to many factors,” added co-principal investigator, Drew Frugé, PhD, RD, with the Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Hospitality Management at Auburn University. “The protein isolated from peanuts contains a full complement of essential amino acids, including the important muscle growth ‘switch’ leucine, that can be delivered in a nutrient-dense package with the functional benefit of being simply incorporated into many easy to consume and tasty food or beverage preparations that meet the dietary needs of older adults.”

This study followed a rigorous methodology by using a randomized design in a laboratory setting and supervising participant training, as well as PP supplement compliance. However, the researchers noted a few limitations, mainly the duration of the intervention of the second cohort. As the original intent was to recruit two separate ten-week cohorts, due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the researchers voluntarily decided to end the second cohort after only six weeks of training to maintain the health and safety of the participants. The decision to compare PP supplementation to no supplementation was made to establish more “real world” relevance (i.e., people supplement their diets with protein powder, or nothing at all).

Despite such limitations, the researchers concluded that “…peanut protein powder supplementation with 6-10 weeks of resistance training enhance certain aspects of muscle hypertrophy and strength in older adults, compared to a resistance training program alone in the elderly population.” Future studies that are longer in duration are needed to definitively determine if PP supplementation can enhance hypertrophic adaptations with resistance training.

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The article, “The effects of resistance training with or without peanut protein supplementation on skeletal muscle and strength adaptations in older individuals”, is published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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Fitness

Getting into shape pre-surgery to aid recovery for older patients – study

Older adults about to undergo elective surgery should undertake a sustained programme of targeted exercise beforehand to counteract the muscle-wasting effects of bedrest, new research suggests.

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Photo by Fitsum Admasu from Unsplash.com

Older adults about to undergo elective surgery should undertake a sustained programme of targeted exercise beforehand to counteract the muscle-wasting effects of bedrest, new research suggests.

A study published by researchers in the University of Birmingham’s School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences showed that short term ‘prehabilitation’ strength exercises, undertaken pre-surgery, are insufficient to prevent muscle loss.

In the study, the researchers asked a group of older adults to perform four sessions of weight lifting exercise over one week. The participants did the exercises using only one leg, while the other leg did no exercise at all.

After completing the prehabilitation, the participants underwent five days of bed-rest – a typical length of stay in hospital for an older patient. Although the researchers expected to find that the leg which had undergone the exercise would experience less muscle loss than the other leg, in fact they found muscle loss was about the same in both legs.

The team’s detailed analysis showed that, while short-term exercise prehabilitation does enhance the body’s muscle-building processes, thigh muscle-wasting was about 3-4 per cent in both legs – roughly equivalent to what older adults would typically lose over 3-5 years of ageing.

The researchers recommend that one approach to protect older muscle from wasting during hospitalisation is to perform longer-term strength exercise prehabilitation beforehand.

Dr Leigh Breen, the study’s corresponding author, says: “Although short-term prehabilitation offers a cost-effective and easy-to-implement strategy, it does not prevent muscle wasting among older adults undergoing bed-rest. This muscle loss may be extremely hard to recover from and can lead to long-term health and disease complications.”

The team recommend that prehabilitation exercise programmes should also incorporate aerobic exercise alongside strength training to protect cardiovascular health, and a protein rich diet to increase muscle mass levels in a way that will effectively cancel out the muscle loss that is experienced during bed-rest

They also recommend that, where appropriate and safe, hospitalised older patients should aim to get back on their feet and mobile again as quickly as possible. Post-surgery exercise and dietary strategies will also be important to ensure a return to full health and lower the risk of future health complications.

Dr Benoit Smeuninx, now at Monash University in Australia, is lead author on the paper. He says: “Our study reinforces the need for more research into the benefits of longer term training programmes prior to surgery. In the same was as an athlete would train before a race or a competition, exercise training before hospitalisation is likely to be highly beneficial to older adults undergoing elective surgeries.”

The work was completed in collaboration with colleagues within the Medical Research Council Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, which is a partnership between the University of Birmingham and the University of Nottingham. The work was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

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