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Vaccine protection against COVID-19 short-lived, booster shots important – study

SARS-CoV-2 mirrors other endemic coronaviruses that also evolve and reinfect us despite natural immunity to earlier strains.

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Photo by Hakan Nural from Unsplash.com

Since COVID-19 vaccines first became available to protect against infection and severe illness, there has been much uncertainty about how long the protection lasts, and when it might be necessary for individuals to get an additional booster shot.

Now, a team of scientists led by faculty at the Yale School of Public Health and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte has an answer: strong protection following vaccination is short-lived.

The study is the first to quantify the likelihood of future infection following natural infection or vaccination by the Moderna, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines. The findings are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The risk of breakthrough infections, in which a person becomes infected despite being vaccinated, depends on the vaccine type. According to the study, current mRNA vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna) offer the greatest duration of protection, nearly three times as long as that of natural infection and the Johnson & Johnson and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines.

“The mRNA vaccines produce the highest levels of antibody response and in our analysis confer more durable protection than other vaccines or exposures,” said Jeffrey Townsend, the Elihu Professor of Biostatistics at Yale School of Public Health and the study’s lead author. “However, it is important to remember that natural immunity and vaccination are not mutually exclusive. Many people will have partial immunity from multiple sources, so understanding the relative durability is key to deciding when to provide a boost to your immune system.”

Dependable protection against reinfection requires up-to-date boosting with vaccines that are adapted to address changes in the virus that occur as part of its natural evolution over time, the researchers said.

“We tend to forget that we are in an arms race with this virus, and that it will evolve ways to evade both our natural and any vaccine-derived immune response,” said Alex Dornburg, assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, who led the study with Townsend. “As we have seen with the Omicron variant, vaccines against early virus strains become less effective at combating new strains of the virus.”

The researchers’ data-driven model of infection risks through time takes advantage of the striking similarities of reinfection probabilities between endemic coronaviruses (which cause “common colds”) and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. These similarities allowed the scientists to make longer-term projections than studies focused solely on current-day infections. Furthermore, the model placed antibody responses following natural and vaccine-mediated immunity into the same context, enabling comparison.

“SARS-CoV-2 mirrors other endemic coronaviruses that also evolve and reinfect us despite natural immunity to earlier strains,” said Townsend. “Continual updating of our vaccinations and booster shots is critical to our fight against SARS-CoV-2.”

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Celebrating World School Milk Day by making milk safe and accessible to Filipino school children

Tetra Pak believes that attaining a sustainable future is anchored on initiatives protecting people and the planet. That is why alongside its efforts in ensuring safe nutrition for children, Tetra Pak is also helping promote sustainability in various communities by providing recycling training for teachers and students.

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In light of World Milk School Day, a global event celebrating the benefits and success of school milk programs, world-leading food processing and packaging solutions company, Tetra Pak, draws attention to the role of multi-stakeholder collaborations to sustainably address childhood nutrition by making fresh milk safe and accessible for everyone.

In the Philippines, Republic Act 11037 also known as an Act Institutionalizing a National Feeding Program for Undernourished Children in Public Day Care was a breakthrough development that mothered the School-Based Feeding Program (SBFP) of the Department of Education.

For the 2020-2021 School Year, it surpassed the target of providing nutritious food products and pasteurized or sterilized milk to 1.7 million beneficiaries from primary public school students in daycare, kindergarten, and elementary schools across the country. Despite the many challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, DepEd SBFP recorded an achievement rate of 183.46% for the milk component and  198.15% for the Nutritious Food Products (NFP) component for the 2020-2021 School Year.  

As the SBFP aims to reach more schoolchildren and communities, RFM Corporation, a home-grown food and beverage leader, highlights the advantages of using UHT milk or milk that went through Ultra High-Temperature pasteurization, thus is safer and has a longer shelf life. This is an important feature considering infrastructure challenges and the lack of refrigeration to distribute the milk in far-flung areas.

Tetra Pak has been helping RFM Corporation deliver Selecta Kids Fortified Milk in Tetra Wedge® Aseptic 200ml Slim, a carton package that protects both the nutritional value and the taste of the milk for up to 12 months. Introduced in 2021, so that children in various parts of the country could have access to safe nutrition, Tetra Wedge® Aseptic Slim uses aseptic technology to ensure that the packaging materials and product inside it are free from harmful bacteria. Like all Tetra Pak carton packages, it’s made of renewable materials and recyclable paperboard, making it one of the best ways to feed the future sustainably.

According to Ms. Marie Concepcion-Young, Senior Vice President and General Manager, Consumer Group of RFM Corporation, “Milk help school kids reach their physical and cognitive potential. Aside from making it accessible, it is imperative that the milk stays fresh and safe even as we transport it to hard-to-reach areas or those with limited storage facilities.” 

During the first phase of SBFP Milk Component, Selecta Kids Fortified Milk in Tetra Wedge® Aseptic 200ml Slim was delivered to schools in Bicol, Davao, and Soccsksargen regions benefitting 359,557 school children. Tetra Pak together with Tetra Laval Food for Development is likewise providing practical support where they share best practices in school milk programs organization and implementation, as well as providing environmental education.

“For decades, we have been working with our customers and relevant stakeholders to support school feeding programs around the world because we believe these are effective in addressing poor health and nutrition in disadvantaged communities,” said Michael Wu, Managing Director, Tetra Pak Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, and Indonesia.

He adds that “We are committed to making food safe and available, everywhere.  That is why we make sure that school children get all the goodness of milk to have the energy to stay in school and get that brain boost they need for learning.”

Tetra Pak believes that attaining a sustainable future is anchored on initiatives protecting people and the planet. That is why alongside its efforts in ensuring safe nutrition for children, Tetra Pak is also helping promote sustainability in various communities by providing recycling training for teachers and students.

“Whether it is addressing food availability or environmental concerns, we believe that real, lasting impact in society can be achieved if stakeholders work together,” Wu concludes.

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The Bellevue Resort leads international coastal cleanup #SeaTheChange in Bohol

The Bellevue Resort – Bohol is a two-time ASEAN Green Hotel awardee, proudly a leader for sustainability.

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More than half a thousand volunteers from local organizations and private sectors, including frontliners, professionals, employees, students, divers, and many more gathered together to collect and segregate an estimated 1,713 kg of non-biodegradable waste at the recently concluded 37th International Coastal Cleanup (ICC) day hosted by The Bellevue Resort in Doljo Beach, Panglao, Bohol.

The Bellevue Resort – Bohol is a two-time ASEAN Green Hotel awardee, proudly a leader for sustainability. This eco-friendly five-star hotel has consistently spearheaded meaningful initiatives for responsible tourism in Bohol since its opening in 2012. Today the resort continues to head and take part in various efforts to promote environmental protection and conservation in the Philippines.

To know more about the resort, visit www.thebellevuebohol.com.

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5 Affordable and simple ways everyone can be an eco warrior

Understanding that collective effort is the way to go, retail giant SM Supermalls is committed to helping all Filipinos make more environmentally friendly choices in every aspect of their life.

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From changing weather patterns to disease outbreaks, we are already feeling the effects of global warming. We need to act now and work together in protecting the planet.

Understanding that collective effort is the way to go, retail giant SM Supermalls is committed to helping all Filipinos make more environmentally friendly choices in every aspect of their life.

“Many people care about the planet but find it hard to create a green lifestyle because of limited time or budget. That’s why we have community programs that make it more convenient and affordable to be an eco-warrior,” says Jonjon San Agustin, SVP for Marketing, SM Supermalls.

Here are five easy ways on how you and your family can live greener.

Segregate your trash and Trash to Cash

Segregating your biodegradable and recyclable waste reduces the amount of trash that goes into landfills. Have separate containers for different kinds of trash: biodegradable for food and garden waste; recyclable for plastic, paper, and metal waste; residual waste for trash that can’t be recycled including used tissue or paper plates; electronic waste for old batteries or broken gadget which shouldn’t be mixed with other waste because they contain metals that can contaminate the soil.

You can bring your recyclable waste to SM Supermalls’ Trash to Cash Recycling Market, held 10 am to 2 pm on every first Friday and Saturday of the Month. Visit this link to find the kiosk locations near you.

Limit the use of plastic through Plastic Waste Collection

Did you know that it takes plastic over 1,000 years to decompose?

About 10% of plastic materials will end up in the ocean and can kill marine life. In the Philippines, plastic waste often congests sewage systems causing floods. You can avoid using single use plastic by bringing your own reusable containers or eco bags when going to the groceries.

You can also buy items in eco-friendly packaging.

Plastic cutlery and straws are optional during order delivery or takeout. For dine-in, you can have your own eco-kit which has a drinking bottle, a set of utensils, and a foldable eco bag. Go green anytime and anywhere!

You can also recycle your plastic waste through SM Supermalls’ Plastic Waste Collection programs. Make it a fun weekend and volunteer for SM by the Bay and SM Mall of Asia’s regular ocean clean-up drives.

Plant a garden

Plants help stop climate change by removing carbon dioxide from the air. If you don’t have a large yard for a garden, you can still get houseplants! There are many creative and beautiful ways to add more plants to a small home like using a backless bookshelf or installing vertical gardens.

Get plants, tools, and expert tips on how to take care of your home garden at SM Mall. You can also find beautiful containers like terrariums and plant hangers that are made by Filipino SMEs.

Buy eco-friendly products

Choose more environmentally friendly products to gradually create a sustainable lifestyle.

Environmentally friendly products can be reusable or biodegradable. They are usually made from sustainable materials with eco-friendly packaging. They also produced less toxic waste during manufacturing and after disposal.

You can find thousands of eco-friendly products within SM malls through the recently launched Green Finds pop-up stores. The selection of products can help go green in every aspect of your life.

Reuse as much as you can

Before you throw anything away, consider if the item can be either upcycled into something useful, or donated to someone who needs it. SM holds regular toy and book drives, where you can even get discount vouchers to use in the store.

Join the Green Movement

The SM Green Movement is a collective effort of SM, its customers, communities, and partners to promote green living, green culture and a green planet. For more information, visit this website.

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