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How sleep helps to process emotions

According to the researchers, the coexistence of both mechanisms is beneficial to the stability and survival of the organisms: “This bi-directional mechanism is essential to optimize the discrimination between dangerous and safe signals,” says Mattia Aime from the DBMR, first author of the study.

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Photo by Mpho Mojapelo from Unsplash.com

Researchers at the Department of Neurology of the University of Bern and University Hospital Bern identified how the brain triages emotions during dream sleep to consolidate the storage of positive emotions while dampening the consolidation of negative ones. The work expands the importance of sleep in mental health and opens new ways of therapeutic strategies.

Rapid eye movement (REM or paradoxical) sleep is a unique and mysterious sleep state during which most of the dreams occur together with intense emotional contents. How and why these emotions are reactivated is unclear. The prefrontal cortex integrates many of these emotions during wakefulness but appears paradoxically quiescent during REM sleep.

“Our goal was to understand the underlying mechanism and the functions of such a surprising phenomenon,” says Prof. Antoine Adamantidis from the Department of Biomedical Research (DBMR) at the University of Bern and the Department of Neurology at the Inselspital, University Hospital of Bern.

Processing emotions, particularly distinguishing between danger and safety, is critical for the survival of animals. In humans, excessively negative emotions, such as fear reactions and states of anxiety, lead to pathological states like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD). In Europe, roughly 15% of the population is affected by persistent anxiety and severe mental illness. The research group headed by Antoine Adamantidis is now providing insights into how the brain helps to reinforce positive emotions and weaken strongly negative or traumatic emotions during REM sleep. This study was published in the journal Science.

A dual mechanism

The researchers first conditioned mice to recognize auditory stimuli associated with safety and others associated with danger (aversive stimuli). The activity of neurons in the brain of mice was then recorded during sleep-wake cycles. In this way, the researchers were able to map different areas of a cell and determine how emotional memories are transformed during REM sleep.  

Neurons are composed of a cell body (soma) that integrates information coming from the dendrites (inputs) and send signals to other neurons via their axons (outputs). The results obtained showed that cell somas are kept silent while their dendrites are activated. “This means a decoupling of the two cellular compartments, in other words soma wide asleep and dendrites wide awake,” explains Adamantidis.

This decoupling is important because the strong activity of the dendrites allows the encoding of both danger and safety emotions, while the inhibitions of the soma completely block the output of the circuit during REM sleep. In other words, the brain favors the discrimination of safety versus danger in the dendrites, but block the over-reaction to emotion, in particular danger.

A survival advantage

According to the researchers, the coexistence of both mechanisms is beneficial to the stability and survival of the organisms: “This bi-directional mechanism is essential to optimize the discrimination between dangerous and safe signals,” says Mattia Aime from the DBMR, first author of the study.

If this discrimination is missing in humans and excessive fear reactions are generated, this can lead to anxiety disorders. The findings are particularly relevant to pathological conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorders, in which trauma is over-consolidated in the prefrontal cortex, day after day during sleep.

Breakthrough for sleep medicine

These findings pave the way to a better understanding of the processing of emotions during sleep in humans and open new perspectives for therapeutic targets to treat maladaptive processing of traumatic memories, such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) and their early sleep-dependent consolidation.

Additional acute or chronic mental health issues that may implicate this somatodendritic decoupling during sleep include acute and chronic stress, anxiety, depression, panic, or even anhedonia, the inability to feel pleasure. Sleep research and sleep medicine have long been a research focus of the University of Bern and the Inselspital, Bern University Hospital. “We hope that our findings will not only be of interest to the patients, but also to the broad public”, says Adamantidis.

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Clorox PH partners with PAL to help enhance travelers’ health, safety

Clorox Philippines worked with PAL to enhance the safety of their customers by providing Clorox products in PAL’s airport hubs and ticket offices across the Philippines.

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As health and safety became a top concern amid the pandemic, especially for travelers, Clorox Philippines, one of the country’s leading providers of cleaning and disinfecting products, collaborated with the flag carrier Philippine Airlines (PAL). 

Clorox Philippines worked with PAL to enhance the safety of their customers by providing Clorox products in PAL’s airport hubs and ticket offices across the Philippines. PAL received Clorox Expert Disinfectant Sprays, Clorox Expert Disinfecting Wipes canisters, Clorox Clean-Up All-Purpose Cleaner, and Clorox Toilet Bowl Cleaners to disinfect its vital facilities and amenities. 

“The health and safety of our passengers are our top priorities. We are pleased to have partnered with Clorox Philippines, which shares our values in upholding the safety and welfare of consumers. As more people go back to flying, our partnership is significant and timely,” said Ria Carrion-Domingo, Vice President for Marketing at PAL. 

Clorox Expert Disinfecting Wipes were also given to PAL’s arriving international and domestic passengers and customers of ticket offices nationwide from December 31, 2021, to March 2022, catering to almost 22,000 travelers. 

“We are always committed to making the lives of every Filipino better each day with our Clorox products amid these uncertain times. And with our collaboration with PAL, we are happy that we can assist in making their travelers safe,” said Monique Gonzales, Marketing Manager for Southeast Asia at Clorox International. 

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Medical Depot expands from north to south of the country

With at least 12 more new stores set to open until end of 2022, Medical Depot recently signs a partnership with Union Bank to strengthen its financial capacity in fulfilling its goals of having 200 total number of stores by 2025.

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With the desire to continue serving more and more Filipinos with quality medical products, Medical Depot grew its total number of strategic branches from 24 stores in 2021 to 38 stores year to date and expanded its geographic footprint to cover 34 cities within Luzon. The company is also expected to establish its presence in the Southern part of the country towards the end of the year. 

Medical Depot started its humble beginnings in 1991 with just 1 branch located in Bambang, Manila and with only three sales personnel. It grew steadily after a few years. Having the vision to further reach more Filipinos, an extensive expansion plan was launched in the first quarter of last year. Since then, the company has been growing at a 50% rate in new branches and has positioned it to be able to serve more localities and increasing the number of total families that can be serviced from hospitals to patients. 

“It has always been our mission to bring quality medical products to our countrymen and to ensure that we are able to service the increasing medical needs of Filipino families in various communities. Our expansion plan that we rolled out is a testament to this mission and we’re glad that we’re on track to open our 40th store by this June,” states Rudy Medina, Chairman of Medical Depot. 

With at least 12 more new stores set to open until end of 2022, Medical Depot recently signs a partnership with Union Bank to strengthen its financial capacity in fulfilling its goals of having 200 total number of stores by 2025. This further fuels the growth trajectory of the company and will support its plan to open its first ever operating and production hub in Mindanao with that will bring its thousands of quality medical products to the southern parts of the country.

In addition to the expanded locations, Medical Depot is also investing in research and development to increase its available items from 5,000 to 10,000 different products and supplies that will cater to various medical demands.

“Medical Depot’s legacy is really about helping the country by addressing the medical needs of our fellowmen with reasonably priced, top-quality medical products. Our efforts to reach more Filipinos by opening new strategic branches across the country in the last 6 months and working to open our hub in the Mindanao region speaks for this and this is truly a milestone for the company,” shares Baby Medina, Vice Chairman of Medical Depot.

The road to success for Medical Depot may not have been a smooth ride but with its constant commitment and care for the medical needs of the Filipinos, the company is on track to continue to succeed by serving the communities through quality medical supplies.

To learn more about Medical Depot and, visit https://medicaldepot.com.ph/ or their Facebook page for updates.

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How to get the best wedding photos ever

Finding the ‘right’ photographer for your wedding is a bit like dating; you can’t make a decision only after checking someone out online. A photographer’s portfolio might be really polished, but you can’t get a real sense of their personality or emotional intelligence. It’s wise to meet with a few photographers or videographers, either in person or via zoom, before you make a final decision.

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Photo by Joel Overbeck from Unsplash.com

According to The New York Times, 2022 will be the biggest year for the wedding industry since 1984. After two years of delays and cancellations, everyone is going to the proverbial chapel to tie the knot. One of the most important elements for many couples are the photos and videos, preserving this special moment forever.

“In the end, having tangible memories you’ll cherish for years to come is a better investment than party favors or fancy table linen,” said Rachel LaCour Niesen, Head of Market Intelligence

A graduate from the Missouri School of Journalism, LaCour Niesen forged a career as a professional wedding photographer and photojournalist where she developed the first CRM for pro photographers. While still continuing her passion in professional photography, LaCour Niesen also serves as Head of Market Intelligence at ShootProof, a platform used by 300,000 photographers to share, deliver, print, & sell their photos. Just in the last year, Shootproof managed wedding galleries received 2.8 million visits per month – and that number is anticipated to grow in 2022. 

Her advice when shopping for a wedding photographer? “Finding the ‘right’ photographer for your wedding is a bit like dating; you can’t make a decision only after checking someone out online. A photographer’s portfolio might be really polished, but you can’t get a real sense of their personality or emotional intelligence. It’s wise to meet with a few photographers or videographers, either in person or via zoom, before you make a final decision.”

For one of the most important days in someone’s life, Rachel has a few “dos” before you say “I Do”

  • Ask friends and family for recommendations. “Word-of-mouth referrals are a great way to curate a list of prospective photographers and videographers.” says Rachel. “After all, your friends and family know you better than anyone else.”
  • Spend time viewing their online portfolios. According to Rachel, “a lot of people can take a few great photos or videos. To tell a more complete “story” of a wedding celebration requires more skill, patience, and thoroughness.”
  • Look closely to see if the photographers and videographers you are interested in have shot weddings in many types of lighting conditions. “It’s pretty easy to capture stunning photos outdoors during “golden hour,” around sunset,” Rachel remarked. “But it’s much, much harder to capture stunning photos in a dimly-lit event space like a hotel ballroom or dance club.”
  • Ask whether photo products are included in their booking fee and/or package price. “To me, every couple should end up having a wedding album or book–a tangible one, not just an online slideshow,” Rachel said. “I still have copies of my grandparent’s wedding photos hanging in my home. They inspire me and bring back so many memories of our family stories. Plus my son is now curious to hear about his great grandparents too and I can point right to those photos and use them to spark conversation.”

Wedding photography does not just document the union itself, but all the family members and friends who came together to celebrate. “Sometimes, the most cherished photo is not that ‘kiss the bride’ moment but that last family image with a beloved grandparent. Weddings are those precious occasions where people rally together in a grand act of joy.”

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