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Want a longer, healthier life? Resolve your arguments by day’s end, OSU study says

Researchers have long been aware of how chronic stress can affect health, from mental health problems such as depression and anxiety to physical problems including heart disease, a weakened immune system, reproductive difficulties and gastrointestinal issues.

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A recent Oregon State University study found that when people feel they have resolved an argument, the emotional response associated with that disagreement is significantly reduced and, in some situations, almost entirely erased.

That reduction in stress may have a major impact on overall health, researchers say.

“Everyone experiences stress in their daily lives. You aren’t going to stop stressful things from happening. But the extent to which you can tie them off, bring them to an end and resolve them is definitely going to pay dividends in terms of your well-being,” said Robert Stawski, senior author on the study and an associate professor in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences. “Resolving your arguments is quite important for maintaining well-being in daily life.”

Researchers have long been aware of how chronic stress can affect health, from mental health problems such as depression and anxiety to physical problems including heart disease, a weakened immune system, reproductive difficulties and gastrointestinal issues.

But it’s not just major chronic stressors like poverty or violence that can inflict damage.

“Daily stressors — specifically the minor, small inconveniences that we have throughout the day — even those have lasting impacts on mortality and things like inflammation and cognitive function,” said Dakota Witzel, lead author and a doctoral student in human development and family studies at OSU.

For the study, Stawski and Witzel used data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, an in-depth survey of more than 2,000 people who were interviewed about their feelings and experiences for eight days in a row.

The researchers looked at reports of both arguments and avoided arguments, defined as instances where the person could have argued about something but chose to let it slide so as not to have a disagreement. They then measured how the incident affected the person’s reported change in negative and positive emotions, both for the day of the encounter and the day after it occurred.

The measure of how an experience affects someone emotionally, an increase in negative emotions or a decrease in positive emotions, on the day it occurs is known as “reactivity,” while “residue” is the prolonged emotional toll the day after the experience occurs. Negative and positive affect refer to the degree of negative and positive emotions a person feels on a given day.

Results showed that on the day of an argument or avoided argument, people who felt their encounter was resolved reported roughly half the reactivity of those whose encounters were not resolved.

On the day following an argument or avoided argument, the results were even starker: People who felt the matter was resolved showed no prolonged elevation of their negative affect the next day.

The study also looked at age-related differences in response to arguments and avoided arguments and found that adults ages 68 and older were more than 40% more likely than people 45 and younger to report their conflicts as resolved. But the impact of resolution status on people’s negative and positive affect remained the same regardless of age.

The researchers had several explanations for older adults’ higher rate of resolution: Older adults may be more motivated to minimize negative and maximize positive emotions as they have fewer years remaining, which is consistent with existing theories of aging and emotion. They may also have more experience navigating arguments and thus be more effective at defusing or avoiding conflict.

“If older adults are really motivated to maximize their emotional well-being, they’re going do a better job, or at least a faster job, at resolving stressors in a more timely fashion,” Stawski said.

While people cannot always control what stressors come into their lives — and lack of control is itself a stressor in many cases — they can work on their own emotional response to those stressors, he said.

“Some people are more reactive than other people,” he said. “But the extent to which you can tie off the stress so it’s not having this gnawing impact at you over the course of the day or a few days will help minimize the potential long-term impact.”

In future research projects, Stawski and Witzel hope to further unpack the nature of people’s disagreements to measure which contexts and relationships provoke the most stressful arguments.

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Gene therapy has potential to cure thalassemia patients from blood disorder

Thalassemia is a blood disorder that affects the body’s ability to produce red blood cells, and hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. Even with blood transfusion and appropriate iron chelation therapy; patients can develop iron overload, with potential to damage the liver, heart, and endocrine system.

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Gene therapy could pave the way for patients with the inherited blood disorder thalassemia to stop or significantly reduce blood transfusions and transform their daily lives, says an expert at a top American hospital, Cleveland Clinic.

Dr. Rabi Hanna, a pediatric hematologist-oncologist, said: “Thalassemia is a disease that can be cured, with gene therapy as a novel step that uses the patients’ own hematopoietic stem cells to produce healthier red blood cells and fix their blood disorder. Thalassemia patients who have received gene therapy have either eliminated or significantly reduced the amount of blood transfusions needed to manage their condition. With gene therapy, we can remove the challenges that thalassemia patients face to give them the courage to pursue their goals and dreams, whether in education, careers, or families.”

Thalassemia is a blood disorder that affects the body’s ability to produce red blood cells, and hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. Even with blood transfusion and appropriate iron chelation therapy; patients can develop iron overload, with potential to damage the liver, heart, and endocrine system.

There are two type of thalassemia, alpha and beta, depending on the defects that can occur in the protein chains that make up hemoglobin. Patients with alpha thalassemia tend to be silent carriers without symptoms, while patients with beta thalassemia major will have major symptoms early after birth and require frequent red blood transfusions. Moderate and severe thalassemia cases are usually diagnosed with early childhood blood tests. Married couples can also have genetic tests that can predict the risk of thalassemia and related blood disorders.

Worldwide, there are 270 million carriers with abnormal hemoglobin and thalassemia, with 300,000-400,000 babies born with serious hemoglobin disorders annually, according to the US National Institute of Health. It is estimated that 90 percent of those births are in low- or middle-income countries, especially in the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa, and the South Pacific. Recognizing this, International Thalassemia Day’s theme for 2021 is “Addressing Health Inequalities Across the Global Thalassemia Community.”

In contrast to time-consuming, life-long blood transfusions, gene therapy could be a one-time therapy and provide a potential cure. Despite that, the allogeneic bone marrow transplant is currently the only available option with the potential to correct the genetic deficiency in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia (TDT), but it has possible complications such as graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and opportunistic infections, particularly in patients who undergo non-sibling matched allogeneic HSCT. Gene therapy, in contrast, uses the patient’s own cells and eliminates the risk of GVHD.

The challenge in Dr. Hann’s opinion is how we can make this therapy available worldwide, especially in developing countries, where most of the patients are, globally.

The European Medicines Agency has given conditional marketing authorization to one form of genetically modified products for beta-thalassemia. In the United States, there are currently clinical trials for gene therapy, and this therapy is under review by Food and Drug Administration – which experts hope could lead to authorization later in 2021.

In recent phase 1-2 studies of gene therapy for 22 patients, all of them had reduced or eliminated the need for long-term red blood cell transfusions. Of the 13 alpha-thalassemia patients, 12 stopped receiving red blood cell transfusions. For the nine beta-thalassemia patients, three stopped red blood cell transfusions, and the remaining six patients saw their median annualized transfusion volume decrease by 73 percent.

“While gene therapy is a promising cure for transfusion-dependent thalassemia, many patients do not know the whole process – including chemotherapy to get rid of the old bone marrow and create space for the new modified stem cells. This will currently require admission to hospital for four to 6 weeks until new the stem cells are working and able to produce white blood cells, platelets and healthier red blood cells,” added Dr. Hanna. “We are hopeful that in the future we can target the bone marrow more selectively using reduced intensity chemotherapy or other medication to avoid the acute and long-term toxicity associated with high doses of chemotherapy.”

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Asthma both under-diagnosed and misdiagnosed

Proper medical diagnosis of asthma could mean that about one-third of people assumed to suffer from the disease could be weaned off long-term medications, impacting millions of people worldwide, says an expert at a top American hospital, Cleveland Clinic.

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Proper medical diagnosis of asthma could mean that about one-third of people assumed to suffer from the disease could be weaned off long-term medications, impacting millions of people worldwide, says an expert at a top American hospital, Cleveland Clinic.

Dr. Joe Zein, who specializes in pulmonary medicine at Cleveland Clinic, said: “Asthma impacts millions of people, and proper diagnoses and treatment are vital to treat asthma early before any damage occurs to the airway. Studies show that one-third of patients thought to have asthma are misdiagnosed by doctors, and 15% of asthma patients taking medication long term do not have an objective diagnosis. Proper diagnosis can ensure that patients receive the right treatment, reduce triggers, and lead healthier lives.”

A study in the Journal of American Medicine (JAMA) found that 33% of randomly tested asthma patients could be safely weaned off their medications, and did not need long-term inhaled steroids.

Asthma is one of the world’s major chronic diseases, impacting more than 339 million people globally, and the most common, non-communicable disease among children, according to the World Health Organization. At the same time, studies have found that asthma is under-diagnosed and under-treated.

Commenting on World Asthma Day 2021’s theme of “Uncovering Asthma Misconceptions,” Dr. Zein emphasized that while some people assume otherwise, asthma tests are often quick and easy. Common diagnostic methods include a spirometry test that measures the airflow through the lungs, and a methacholine challenge test that evaluates how reactive lungs are to changes in the environment. Healthcare practitioners may also request chest x-rays, and blood, skin, or allergy tests.

Asthma patients can suffer from chest tightness, pain, or pressure; coughing; and shortness of breath or wheezing. An asthma attack restricts airflow due to tightened and inflamed airways, and mucus clogs.

Treatment can include anti-inflammatory medicines that make it easier for air to enter and exit the lungs, bronchodilators that relax the airway muscles, or biologic therapies that target specific molecules.

Asthma, which has both genetic and environmental causes, has a wide range of triggers – especially in people’s own homes and neighborhoods. The most common asthma triggers are dust mites, pet dander, pollen and ragweed, pests such as cockroaches and mice, and mold. Tobacco smoke from the patient themselves or from secondhand smoke, air pollution, and exercise can also all trigger asthma attacks.

“People with asthma may not want to get rid of their pets, especially cats or dogs,” added Dr. Zein. “If asthma patients have to keep their pets in the house, they should keep pets outside of the bedroom, and replace any thick carpets with tile or hardwood to reduce pet dander. Asthma patients should also wash their bedding with hot water, vacuum often to remove dust, and put in de-humidifiers in any damp areas of the house.”

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Does listening to calming music at bedtime actually help you sleep?

Listening to calming music at bedtime improved sleep quality in older adults, and calming music was much better at improving sleep quality than rhythmic music.

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A new study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society has found that listening to music can help older adults sleep better.

Researchers from the National Cheng Kung University Hospital in Taiwan combined the results of past studies to understand the effect that listening to music can have on the quality of older adults’ sleep. Their work suggests that:

  • Older adults (ages 60 and up) living at home sleep better when they listen to music for 30 minutes to one hour at bedtime.
  • Calm music improves older adults’ sleep quality better than rhythmic music does.
  • Older adults should listen to music for more than four weeks to see the most benefit from listening to music.

Why Older Adults Have Trouble Getting a Good Night’s Sleep

As we age, our sleep cycles change and make a good night’s sleep harder to achieve. What does it really mean to get a good night’s sleep? If you wake up rested and ready to start your day, you probably slept deeply the night before. But if you’re tired during the day, need coffee to keep you going, or wake up several times during the night, you may not be getting the deep sleep you need. According to the National Institute on Aging, older adults need seven to nine hours of sleep each night.

But studies have shown that 40 to 70 percent of older adults have sleep problems and over 40 percent have insomnia, meaning they wake up often during the night or too early in the morning. Sleep problems can make you feel irritable and depressed, can cause memory problems, and can even lead to falls or accidents.

How the Researchers Studied the Effect of Music on Older Adults’ Quality of Sleep

For their study, the researchers searched for past studies that tested the effect of listening to music on older adults with sleep problems who live at home. They looked at five studies with 288 participants. Half of these people listened to music; the other half got the usual or no treatment for their sleep problems. People who were treated with music listened to either calming or rhythmic music for 30 minutes to one hour, over a period ranging from two days to three months. (Calming music has slow tempo of 60 to 80 beats per minute and a smooth melody, while rhythmic music is faster and louder.) All participants answered questions about how well they thought they were sleeping. Each participant ended up with a score between 0 and 21 for the quality of their sleep.

The researchers looked at the difference in average scores for:

  • people who listened to music compared to people who did not listen to music;
  • people who listened to calm music compared to people who listened to rhythmic music;
  • and people who listened to music for less than four weeks compared to people who listened to music for more than four weeks.

What the Researchers Learned

Listening to calming music at bedtime improved sleep quality in older adults, and calming music was much better at improving sleep quality than rhythmic music. The researchers said that calming music may improve sleep by slowing your heart rate and breathing, and lowering your blood pressure. This, in turn helps lower your levels of stress and anxiety.

Researchers also learned that listening to music for longer than four weeks is better at improving sleep quality than listening to music for a shorter length of time.

What this Study Means for You

If you’re having trouble sleeping, listening to music can be a safe, effective, and easy way to help you fall and stay asleep. It may also reduce your need for medication to help you sleep.

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