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Eating late increases hunger, decreases calories burned, and changes fat tissue

Eating later had profound effects on hunger and appetite-regulating hormones leptin and ghrelin, which influence our drive to eat. Specifically, levels of the hormone leptin, which signals satiety, were decreased across the 24 hours in the late eating condition compared to the early eating conditions.

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Obesity afflicts approximately 42 percent of the adult population and contributes to the onset of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and other conditions. While popular healthy diet mantras advise against midnight snacking, few studies have comprehensively investigated the simultaneous effects of late eating on the three main players in body weight regulation and thus obesity risk: regulation of calorie intake, the number of calories you burn, and molecular changes in fat tissue. A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital, a founding member of the Mass General Brigham healthcare system, found that when we eat significantly impacts our energy expenditure, appetite, and molecular pathways in adipose tissue. Their results are published in Cell Metabolism.

“We wanted to test the mechanisms that may explain why late eating increases obesity risk,” explained senior author Frank A. J. L. Scheer, PhD, Director of the Medical Chronobiology Program in the Brigham’s Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders. “Previous research by us and others had shown that late eating is associated with increased obesity risk, increased body fat, and impaired weight loss success. We wanted to understand why.”

“In this study, we asked, ‘Does the time that we eat matter when everything else is kept consistent?’” said first author Nina Vujović, PhD, a researcher in the Medical Chronobiology Program in the Brigham’s Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders. “And we found that eating four hours later makes a significant difference for our hunger levels, the way we burn calories after we eat, and the way we store fat.”

Vujović, Scheer and their team studied 16 patients with a body mass index (BMI) in the overweight or obese range. Each participant completed two laboratory protocols: one with a strictly scheduled early meal schedule, and the other with the exact same meals, each scheduled about four hours later in the day. In the last two to three weeks before starting each of the in-laboratory protocols, participants maintained fixed sleep and wake schedules, and in the final three days before entering the laboratory, they strictly followed identical diets and meal schedules at home.

In the lab, participants regularly documented their hunger and appetite, provided frequent small blood samples throughout the day, and had their body temperature and energy expenditure measured. To measure how eating time affected molecular pathways involved in adipogenesis, or how the body stores fat, investigators collected biopsies of adipose tissue from a subset of participants during laboratory testing in both the early and late eating protocols, to enable comparison of gene expression patterns/levels between these two eating conditions.

Results revealed that eating later had profound effects on hunger and appetite-regulating hormones leptin and ghrelin, which influence our drive to eat. Specifically, levels of the hormone leptin, which signals satiety, were decreased across the 24 hours in the late eating condition compared to the early eating conditions. When participants ate later, they also burned calories at a slower rate and exhibited adipose tissue gene expression towards increased adipogenesis and decreased lipolysis, which promote fat growth. Notably, these findings convey converging physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the correlation between late eating and increased obesity risk.

Vujović explains that these findings are not only consistent with a large body of research suggesting that eating later may increase one’s likelihood of developing obesity, but they shed new light on how this might occur. By using a randomized crossover study, and tightly controlling for behavioral and environmental factors such as physical activity, posture, sleep, and light exposure, investigators were able to detect changes the different control systems involved in energy balance, a marker of how our bodies use the food we consume.

In future studies, Scheer’s team aims to recruit more women to increase the generalizability of their findings to a broader population. While this study cohort included only five female participants, the study was set up to control for menstrual phase, reducing confounding but making recruiting women more difficult. Going forward, Scheer and Vujović are also interested in better understanding the effects of the relationship between meal time and bedtime on energy balance.

“This study shows the impact of late versus early eating. Here, we isolated these effects by controlling for confounding variables like caloric intake, physical activity, sleep, and light exposure, but in real life, many of these factors may themselves be influenced by meal timing,” said Scheer. “In larger scale studies, where tight control of all these factors is not feasible, we must at least consider how other behavioral and environmental variables alter these biological pathways underlying obesity risk. ”

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Bookshelf PH announces book collections from diverse genres

Publishing house Bookshelf PH, with its collection of books from diverse genres, has heart-swooning reads that touch all five love languages.

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Love is given, felt, and explored in ways we never expect.

We’re no strangers to the concept of feeling kilig, an emotion that makes hearts swoon and flutter whenever we give or receive love. Speaking of giving and receiving love, we might prefer one over the other but overall, these five love languages create a holistic relationship with our loved ones whether that’s through physical touch, words of affirmation, quality time, gift-giving, or acts of service.

Publishing house Bookshelf PH, with its collection of books from diverse genres, has heart-swooning reads that touch all five love languages. From affirming poems to small acts of service, here are five books that explore love’s different manifestations, each with stories to tell of how we can give and receive love in ways we prefer the most.

1. Jasmines in Her Hair – Words of Affirmation

Love is expressed through the gentle whisper of words. ”Jasmines in Her Hair” by Kalpesh Desai is a poetry collection that features the themes and facets of love. From tender beginnings of infatuation to depths of enduring connection, each poem will captivate readers to immerse themselves in passionate sensibilities found in delight, sorrow, grief, acceptance, and resilience, capturing the essence of the heart’s universal experiences. 

Poetic words are as powerful as daily communication and this book might be the perfect bond for lovers. If you love compliments, notes, or sweet whispers, then words of affirmation may be your cup of love language. It’s not too old-school to write personal notes inspired by these poems to show appreciation to your Lovey-dovey.

2. Laws of Motions and Attraction – Physical Touch

“Alex never believed in love at first sight. But right then she realized, maybe she had loved him all along. It had been a long time coming, but it turned out ‘maybe someday’ was worth the wait, after all..”

Missing those back hugs and forehead kisses? How about those tender traces of his fingertips to your cheeks? Just when you know that physical touch becomes a language of its own, it speaks volume where words fall short. This is your sign to reminisce about the past and reflect if he is worth the second chance.

Gravitate your senses with Kaye Allen’s contemporary romance novel, “Laws of Motions and Attraction” as it brings you the story of Alex, a driven student who finds herself captivated by the most ideal suitor on campus only to discover that destiny has other plans. In this enthralling examination of love, accompany Alex on a journey fraught with twists and turns, and let her story touch your heart brimming every moment with sweet affection.

3. Warm Blankets in Cold Midnights – Gift-Giving

Who says love month is over? February may have passed but it’s never late to surprise someone with a thoughtful present. Let your cozy affection be felt by giving Warm Blankets in Cold Midnights to express the language of gift-giving!

Share the warmth with your loved one as you immerse in Janella Ventura’s short story collection, “Warm Blankets in Cold Midnights,” featuring 23 heartwarming love stories to uplift your spirits and 18 tear-jerking tales that will leave you deeply moved. From handmade treasures to heartfelt gestures,  Warm Blankets in Cold Midnights reminds readers that the true value of a gift lies not in its material worth, but in the love and care with which it is given.

4. Words, Fate, and Accidents – Quality Time

“…We may not know each other well but sometimes people could find comfort in the most unlikely places. Be it in a good book, a playlist with all favorite songs, or even in a foreign country, standing beside a stranger you met by accident.”

Another heart-touching craft from Kaye Allen is her “Words, Fate, and Accidents”, which is a story of connection and companionship. In a world where time is fleeting and fate is unpredictable, two strangers found solace in each other’s company, forging bonds that withstand the test of time. If you value quality time for your loved ones, then this book might remind you that time isn’t measured in minutes or hours, but in the profound moments shared between kindred spirits.

5. Lost You, Found Me – Acts of Service

“Lost is a state we will perpetually be in and the life is best approached by embracing it as it is.”

Picture this: late-night study sessions, surprise coffee deliveries, and shoulder-to-cry-on moments. Everyone has been through the rough stage between college and adulting where those small acts of service matter most in times when we feel most alone. You’re not lost sweetie, because a story that resonates has found its way to you!

Testament to the power of selfless devotion, Zara Carbonell’s “Lost You, Found Me” takes  readers into the tumultuous journey of love, loss, and self-discovery—a celebration of love through acts of sacrifice. Set against the backdrop of the exhilarating transition from college into the unknowns of adulthood, Lost You, Found Me offers a unique perspective on the exploration of life’s nitty-gritty.

Each of these books provides a fresh view on the languages of love and illustrates the diverse ways we communicate and receive affection. Whether through verbal affection, intimate gestures, shared warmth of hugs, or acts of selflessness, these authors capture the universality of love–transcending barriers and resonating deeply within our beings.

Thrilled to grab a copy of one of these books that pulsates your love language?

Visit Bookshelf PH  and discover the perfect read for you.

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Filipinos can now gain easier access to insurance with SeaInsure and Igloo

Filipinos can now easily access various personal and family insurance plans from SeaInsure Philippines through Igloo Philippines’ AI-powered app, Ignite by Igloo.

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Filipinos can now easily access various personal and family insurance plans from SeaInsure Philippines through Igloo Philippines’ AI-powered app, Ignite by Igloo.

The partnership between the two companies brings greater convenience and empowerment to insurance providers and seekers, giving Filipinos wider accessibility to essential insurance plans and supporting financial resilience.The initial products available on the app provide up to  ₱300,000 worth of coverage.

These include the SeaInsure Junior Accident Shield (0 to 17 years old), which covers medical expenses resulting from accidents; the SeaInsure Ladies Accident Shield (18 to 45 years old), which provides general accident coverage, including beauty procedures and pregnancy complications; SeaInsure Personal Accident Shield (18 to 60 years old) that takes care of medical expenses from unfortunate accidents; and SeaInsure Senior Accident Shield (61 to 70 years old) that protects from accidents like slips and bone fractures.

For more information, visit https://seainsure.com.ph/products/personal/protection.

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PRUBabies receives back-to-back international awards

ru Life UK offered 175,000 free vouchers of PRUMedCare – Select Infectious Diseases coverage for newborns from 7 days to 11 months old, helping parents protect their newborns against the cost of getting sick from any of the covered four infectious diseases – Dengue, Typhoid, Measles and Malaria.

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PRUBabies, Pru Life UK’s free insurance coverage against select infectious diseases for newborns, bagged Silver and Bronze Stevie®Awardsfor Community Relations/Public Service Communications and Innovative Achievement in Diversity & Inclusion, respectively.

As a testament to the company’s commitment to driving financial inclusion in the country, Pru Life UK offered 175,000 free vouchers of PRUMedCare – Select Infectious Diseases coverage for newborns from 7 days to 11 months old, helping parents protect their newborns against the cost of getting sick from any of the covered four infectious diseases – Dengue, Typhoid, Measles and Malaria. 

“Daghang salamat Pru Life UK. Dahil sa inyo, nabigyan ng libreng proteksyon ang aking baby,” shares Jeresa Caranoo, mother from Bantayan Island, Cebu who received free insurance for her child. 

Through PRUBabies, parents can receive cash assistance for the diagnosis and death of newborns due to any of the four covered diseases. The Department of Health has warned the public to watch out for the four covered diseases, particularly during summer. 

The life insurer distributed free vouchers across the country through Pru Life UK’s 42,000-strong agency force and the support of local government units, non-government organizations (NGOs) and hospitals – NGO Asia Society for Social Improvement and Sustainable Transformation (ASSIST) for Bantayan Island, Cebu and Parañaque City; The CSR arm of FirstGen Corp. for its host communities in Batangas City; St. Scholastica’s Formation House in Tagaytay City; Philippine Medical Association-Calamba for Dr. Jose P. Rizal District Hospital in Calamba, Laguna; Rotary Club of Mandaluyong-Biyaya for the Grace to Be Born Shelter in Pasig City; Microfinance NGO Tulay sa Pag-unlad Inc. (TSPI) in Makati; Office of Palawan Board Member Anton Alvarez and the Mayor’s Office of Taytay for Taytay, Palawan, Rotary Club of Mandaluyong and Mandaluyong City government for the Mandaluyong City Medical Center, Manila City government for Tondo, Manila, and Barangay Council of Tandang Sora for Barangay Tandang Sora in Quezon City.

A combined financial literacy and climate & health session was also conducted for the families in Palawan, the only province in the Philippines with known malaria cases. 

PRUBabies is one of the many ways we make life insurance more accessible to more Filipino families, including babies who deserve to be protected from birthWe are grateful to our like-minded partners for their support in reaching out to unserved and underserved communities in far-flung areas. With PRUBabies, we live up to our mission to be the most trusted partners for every life and protectors for every future of Filipino families,” shares Allan Tumbaga, Pru Life UK’s Chief Customer and Marketing Officer. The free coverage vouchers have been distributed in 2023. Filipinos who want to be continuously financially protected with PRUMedCare – Select Infectious Diseases can get it via Pulse app.

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