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What is Da Vinci famous for?

Some legendary artists have equally contributed to our knowledge of the physical world through their artwork, and Leonardo Da Vinci is one such name. The renowned Italian artist of the 15th century was not just a painter, but also an inventor, architect, sculptor, and self-taught scientific philosopher.

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Artists are often perceived as ‘madmen’ with their thoughts and ideas swaying way beyond reality into an imaginary realm. This perception often leads us to believe that art seldom contributes to the practical aspects of the physical world, like science, maths, or anatomy. 

But some legendary artists have equally contributed to our knowledge of the physical world through their artwork, and Leonardo Da Vinci is one such name. The renowned Italian artist of the 15th century was not just a painter, but also an inventor, architect, sculptor, and self-taught scientific philosopher. 

His commendable knowledge of such varied disciplines earned him the title of the “Renaissance man.” Though his paintings have inspired many generations of artists and gained world-wide recognition, his works in other fields still remain highly unrecognized. In this article, we’ll peek into some of the underrated talents that influenced his art and made him the man we know today. 

Early Life

Leonardo was born in 1452 in Tuscany (present-day Italy) as an illegitimate child of an attorney father and a peasant mother. The young boy spent his childhood on his father’s estate in Vinci (the neighboring town that earned him his famous surname) from the age of 5. 

Vinci had close affiliations with his uncle, who had a high inclination towards abstract things, including nature, which Vinci later shared. Many historians point out that the illegitimacy of his birth actually played a huge role in his transformation into an artist.

If Leonardo were born within wedlock, he would most probably grow up to carry on his father’s business. However, since he could not inherit his father’s legal title, he had much more freedom to explore his interests in art and science.

Beginning of His Career

Leonardo’s father recognized and appreciated his artistic talents early on. He even sent him on an apprenticeship under renowned sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio, of Florence. Vinci spent 10 years refining his mechanical art and sculpting techniques and became an independent master in 1478. 

In 1480, he began his first commissioned work called ‘The Adoration of the Magi’ for a Scopeto monastery. But it remained incomplete due to his moving to Milan to work as a sculptor for the Sforza clan, where he created a 16-feet tall statue of the dynasty founder.

Only a few of Da Vinci’s splendid artworks survived to date, particularly because his total output as an artist was not quantitatively big, to begin with. Out of the handful of his surviving masterpieces, two have gained recognition all around the world- The Last Supper and MonaLisa.

The Last Supper

Inarguably one of the most easily recognizable and iconic works of Da Vinci, this painting doesn’t rest in a fancy museum. As if clinging on to its rich past, The Last Supper resides right where Vinci painted it- Santa Maria Delle Grazie Refectory dining hall.

The painting describes what’s called ‘the moment of epic betrayal’ in Christianity when Judas exposes Christ, who is then arrested and crucified. Da Vinci’s portrayal of the scene looks so realistic because of the excellent display of emotions. The characters in his painting seem to be interacting with one another, and Vinci has done a splendid job in recreating the atmosphere.

Mona Lisa

There’s hardly anyone young or old, irrespective of their interests, who hasn’t heard of or recognizes the masterpiece that is MonaLisa. Painted in the early 16th century, MonaLisa is a marvelous depiction of a woman with a mysteriously engaging smile. 

The subject of the painting still remains unknown to many. Historians in the past believed that the painting depicts Mona Lisa Gherardini, a courtesan. However, contemporary scholars claim that it was Lisa del Giocondo, wife of a Florentine merchant.

Even after five hundred years after its creation, MonaLisa carries an air of mystery around it with its ambiguous, yet comforting smile. Da Vinci has skillfully portrayed not one but many emotions through this painting, which are privy to our own projections.

His Philosophy of Interconnectedness

Da Vinci saw art as another facet of science, which reflected in many of his works. He was so immersed in diverse interests, from astronomy to anatomy that he spent less time painting and more in exploring these domains. He kept a notebook of his ideas, scientific experiments, theories, and discoveries.

Such was his brilliance that through the power of his imagination, he had invented (at least on paper) the precise designs of a bicycle and the airplane. But being an artist, his scientific ideas were not recognized in those times as people saw art and science as polar opposite domains.

Scholars today marvel at the expanse of his thoughts, which were way ahead of his time. Da Vinci has contributed significantly towards building the perception of art as an integral facet of science, and vice versa. One could go on and on about the epitome of genius that Da Vinci was. But the essence of an artist can only ever be understood through his works. 

The Bottom Line

Now, buying Mona Lisa itself or flying to Paris to see her smile every day is practically not feasible. But you can always get your hands on a fine reproduction of Da Vinci’s works made by experienced artists of 1st-Art-Gallery. After all, any attempt to explain his contribution to art is fruitless until you’ve actually immersed yourself in his works.

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Closeness with dads may play special role in how kids weather adolescence

Additionally, father-youth intimacy was associated with higher self-esteem from early through mid-adolescence for both boys and girls. Mother-youth intimacy was associated with higher self-esteem across most of adolescence for girls, and during early and late adolescence for boys.

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Photo by Daiga Ellaby from Unsplash.com

Adolescence can be an emotionally turbulent time, but new research at Penn State found that close, supportive relationships with parents — especially dads — at key points during adolescence can help stave off certain adjustment problems.

The researchers examined how emotionally close and supportive relationships with parents — referred to in the research as “parental intimacy” — in families with mothers and fathers affected their children’s self-esteem, weight concerns, and depressive symptoms at different points across adolescence.

They found that closeness with fathers had broad, positive effects across adolescence for both daughters and sons. But while close relationships with mothers also had benefits, they were more limited by their children’s age, and weren’t protective against all the adjustment issues measured in the study for both girls and boys.

Anna Hochgraf, doctoral candidate in human development and family studies, said the findings suggest that while close relationships with moms are certainly important, fathers may play an important, distinct role in fostering healthy adjustment in adolescents.

“Adolescents tend to feel emotionally closer to their mothers than to their fathers and mothers tend to have supportive conversations with their children more frequently than fathers do,” Hochgraf said. “This may make emotional closeness with fathers more salient and, in turn, protective against these common adjustment problems experienced during adolescence.”

According to the researchers, adolescence is a period of development that includes many biological, cognitive, emotional and social changes that can lead to certain adjustment issues, with weight concerns, low self-esteem, and symptoms of depression being some of the most common, especially for girls.

But, previous research has also shown that close relationships with parents have the potential to help protect against the development of some of these problems. Hochgraf said she and the other researchers wanted to explore the topic further, breaking the results down by participants’ age, gender, and relationship with each parent.

“We wanted to investigate when during the course of adolescence intimacy with mothers and fathers becomes a protective factor for body image concerns, depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem, and whether intimacy is more strongly associated with positive adjustment at some ages than at others,” Hochgraf said. “We also wanted to see if patterns differed for girls and boys.”

The researchers recruited 388 adolescents from 202 two-parent families with both fathers and mothers for the study. Data was gathered at three checkpoints when the participants were between the ages of 12 and 20, and included information on participants’ weight concerns, symptoms of depression, and self-esteem, as well as measurements of intimacy between parents and their kids.

Intimacy was measured by the participants answering questions such as how much they go to their mother or father for advice or support and how much they share inner feelings or secrets with them, to which the adolescents responded with a score ranging from one to five.

Hochgraf said it was important to gather data at several points in time because problems with adjustment, as well as relationships with parents, can change and develop swiftly throughout adolescence.

“Rather than assume that the associations between parent-adolescent intimacy and adolescent adjustment problems are static across adolescence, we studied changes in these links as a function of age,” Hochgraf said. “This approach enabled us to determine at which ages parent-youth intimacy may be most protective against body image concerns, depressive symptoms and self-esteem.”

After analyzing the data, the researchers found several different effects of parental intimacy on their sons and daughters at different times throughout adolescence. These effects were also different between mothers and fathers.

“For example, while father-adolescent intimacy was associated with fewer depressive symptoms across adolescence, mother-adolescent intimacy was associated with fewer depressive symptoms during mid-adolescence, around age 15,” Hochgraf said.

They also found that father-youth intimacy was associated with fewer weight concerns for both girls and boys throughout most of adolescence, with the greatest effects in mid-adolescence for girls and late adolescence for boys. In contrast, mother-youth intimacy was only associated with fewer weight concerns for boys, and only in early adolescence.

Additionally, father-youth intimacy was associated with higher self-esteem from early through mid-adolescence for both boys and girls. Mother-youth intimacy was associated with higher self-esteem across most of adolescence for girls, and during early and late adolescence for boys.

Hochgraf said the study — recently published in the Journal of Family Psychology — underscores the importance of parents being close, open and supportive with their children.

“Parents can promote their adolescents’ healthy development by fostering emotionally warm, accepting, and supportive relationships with them,” Hochgraf said. “There are a number of evidence-based, family-centered prevention programs that can help parents improve or maintain positive relationship quality and communication with their children throughout adolescence and that have been shown to prevent multiple adolescent adjustment problems.”

Gregory Fosco, associate professor of human development and family studies; Stephanie Lanza, professor of biobehavioral health and human development and family studies; and Susan McHale, distinguished professor of human development and family studies, also participated in this work.

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Heart patients need more help to lose weight

Positive associations were found between lifestyle improvements and weight loss in obese or overweight patients. Compared to those who gained 5% or more of their body weight, those who lost at least 5% of their body weight had more frequently reduced fat and sugar intake, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish, done regular physical activity, attended a cardiac rehabilitation and prevention program and followed dietary advice from a health professional.

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Weight loss is given insufficient priority in the management of heart patients despite the benefits, according to a study published today in European Heart Journal – Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

The study of more than 10,000 patients found that less than 20% had a healthy body mass index (BMI) at the time of hospitalisation for a heart event. Some 16 months later, 86% of patients who were obese during hospitalisation were still obese while 14% of overweight patients had become obese. Young women were particularly affected, with nearly half of those under 55 years being obese. Yet more than a third of obese patients said they had not received advice on physical activity or nutrition and nearly one in five said they had not been informed that they were overweight.

“It seems that obesity is not considered by physicians as a serious medical problem, which requires attention, recommendations and obvious advice on personal weight targets,” stated the authors.

Weight loss is strongly recommended in overweight and obese patients with coronary heart disease to improve blood pressure and lipids levels and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, thereby lowering the likelihood of another heart event. This study investigated the management of patients who were overweight or obese at the time of hospitalization for a first or recurrent heart event (e.g. heart attack or elective procedure to unblock clogged arteries). The researchers examined lifestyle advice received, actions taken, and the relationship between weight changes and health status.

The researchers pooled data from the EUROASPIRE IV (2012 to 2013) and EUROASPIRE V (2016 to 2017) studies, which were conducted in 29 countries. The analysis included 10,507 patients with coronary heart disease. Patients were visited 6 to 24 months after hospitalisation for their heart event (the average gap was 16 months). The visit consisted of an interview, questionnaires and a clinical examination including weight, height and blood tests.

One in four participants (24.8%) were women and the average age at the time of hospitalisation was 62.5 years. At the time of hospitalisation, 34.9% of patients were obese and another 46.0% were overweight.3 By the time of the study visit (on average 16 months later), an even greater proportion of patients were obese (36.9%). Rates of obesity rates were higher in younger patients with a prevalence of 40.1% in those aged under 55 years (men 38.3%, women 48.4%).

Regarding the link between weight changes and health status, overweight or obese patients who lost 5% or more of their body weight had significantly lower levels of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and previously unrecognised diabetes compared to those who gained 5% or more of their body weight – despite being equally treated with blood pressure and lipid lowering medications. They also reported higher levels of physical and emotional quality of life.

As for the advice patients received, half of all patients were advised to follow a cardiac prevention and rehabilitation programme, with no difference in advice according to their weight status. For obese patients, less than two-thirds were advised to follow dietary recommendations (63.7%) or to do regular physical activity (64.2%).

Positive associations were found between lifestyle improvements and weight loss in obese or overweight patients. Compared to those who gained 5% or more of their body weight, those who lost at least 5% of their body weight had more frequently reduced fat and sugar intake, increased consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish, done regular physical activity, attended a cardiac rehabilitation and prevention program and followed dietary advice from a health professional.

The authors noted that weight gain was significantly associated with smoking cessation. In patients who were overweight or obese at hospitalisation, those who quit smoking gained 1.8 kg on average in contrast to the 0.4 kg average weight gain observed in persistent smokers.

Study author Professor Catriona Jennings of the National University of Ireland – Galway said cardiac rehabilitation programs, which typically emphasize exercise, should give equal priority to dietary management. She said: “Weight loss is best achieved by adopting healthy eating patterns and increasing levels of physical activity and exercise. Whilst actively trying to lose weight at the same time as trying to quit smoking is not advised, adopting a cardio-protective diet and becoming more physically active has the potential to mitigate the effects of smoking cessation on weight gain in patients trying to quit. Their aim is to maintain their weight and to avoid gaining even more weight following their quit.”

“Uptake and access to cardiac rehabilitation programs is poor with less than half of patients across Europe reporting that they completed a program,” added Professor Jennings. “Such programs would provide a good opportunity to support patients in addressing overweight and obesity, especially for female patients who were found to have the biggest problem with overweight and obesity in the study. Uptake and access could be improved with the use of digital technology, especially for women, who possibly are less likely to attend a program because they have many other competing priorities, such as caring for others. There are good reasons for people to address their weight after a cardiac event. – but it’s not easy and they do need help.”

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Coffee doesn’t raise your risk for heart rhythm problems

Each additional daily cup of coffee consumed among several hundred thousand individuals was associated with a 3 percent lower risk of any arrhythmia occurring, including atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, or other common heart conditions.

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Photo by Clay Banks from Unsplash.com

In the largest study of its kind, an investigation by UC San Francisco has found no evidence that moderate coffee consumption can cause cardiac arrhythmia.

In fact, each additional daily cup of coffee consumed among several hundred thousand individuals was associated with a 3 percent lower risk of any arrhythmia occurring, including atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, or other common heart conditions, the researchers report. The study included a four-year follow up.

The paper is published in JAMA Internal Medicine.

“Coffee is the primary source of caffeine for most people, and it has a reputation for causing or exacerbating arrhythmias,” said senior and corresponding author Gregory Marcus, MD, professor of medicine in the Division of Cardiology at UCSF.

“But we found no evidence that caffeine consumption leads to a greater risk of arrhythmias,” said Marcus, who specializes in the treatment of arrhythmias. “Our population-based study provides reassurance that common prohibitions against caffeine to reduce arrhythmia risk are likely unwarranted.”

While some professional societies suggest avoiding caffeinated products to lower the risk for arrhythmia, this connection has not been consistently demonstrated – indeed, coffee consumption may have anti-inflammatory benefits and is associated with reduced risks of some illnesses including cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson disease.

In the new study, UCSF scientists explored whether habitual coffee intake was associated with a risk of arrhythmia, and whether genetic variants that affect caffeine metabolism could modify that association. Their investigation was conducted via the community-based UK Biobank, a prospective study of participants in England’s National Health Services.

Some 386,258 coffee drinkers took part in the coffee research, with an average mean age of 56 years; slightly more than half were female. It was an unprecedented sample size for this type of inquiry.

In addition to a conventional analysis examining self-reported coffee consumption as a predictor of future arrhythmias, the investigators employed a technique called “Mendelian Randomization,” leveraging genetic data to infer causal relationships. As those with the genetic variants associated with faster caffeine metabolism drank more coffee, this analysis provided a method to test the caffeine-arrhythmia relationship in a way that did not rely on participant self-report and should have been immune to much of the confounding inherent to most observational studies.

With a mean four-year follow up, data were adjusted for demographic characteristics, health and lifestyle habits.

Ultimately, approximately 4 percent of the sample developed an arrhythmia. No evidence of a heightened risk of arrhythmias was observed among those genetically predisposed to metabolize caffeine differently. The researchers said that higher amounts of coffee were actually associated with a 3 percent reduced risk of developing an arrhythmia.

The authors noted limitations including the self-reporting nature of the study, and that detailed information on the type of coffee – such as espresso or not – was unavailable.

“Only a randomized clinical trial can definitively demonstrate clear effects of coffee or caffeine consumption,” said Marcus. “But our study found no evidence that consuming caffeinated beverages increased the risk of arrhythmia. Coffee’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties may play a role, and some properties of caffeine could be protective against some arrhythmias.”

Co-authors are Eun-jeong Kim, MD; Thomas J. Hoffmann, PhD; Gregory Nah, MA; Eric Vittinghoff, PhD; and Francesca Delling, MD, all of UCSF.

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