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Ditching car for walking or biking just one day a week cuts carbon footprint

Active transport’ – cycling, e-biking or walking – can help tackle the climate crisis according to a new study.

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Photo by Cristina Gottardi from Unsplash.com

Swapping the car for walking, cycling and e-biking even just one day a week makes a significant impact on personal carbon emissions in cities.

‘Active transport’ – cycling, e-biking or walking – can help tackle the climate crisis according to a new study led by the University of Oxford’s Transport Studies Unit and including researchers from Imperial’s Centre for Environmental Policy as part of the EU-funded project PASTA: Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches.

Meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets requires a significant move away from motorised transport. The team found that shifting to active transport could save as much as a quarter of personal carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from transport.

Published in the journal Global Environmental Change, this is the first study of the carbon-reducing impact of city-based lifestyle changes, and reveals that increases in active mobility significantly lower carbon footprints, even in European cities that already have a high incidence of walking and cycling.

Co-author Dr Audrey de Nazelle, from the Centre for Environmental Policy at Imperial, said: “Our findings suggest that, even if not all car trips could be substituted by bicycle trips, the potential for decreasing emissions is huge.

“This is one more piece of evidence on the multiple benefits of active travel, alongside our previous studies showing cycling is the best way to get around cities for both physical and mental health, and that promoting cycling helps tackle obesity. This should encourage different sectors to work together to create desirable futures from multiple health, environmental and social perspectives.”

Small swaps, big impact

The study followed nearly 2,000 people in seven European cities (Antwerp, Belgium; Barcelona, Spain; London, UK; Orebro, Sweden; Rome, Italy; Vienna, Austria; Zurich, Switzerland), collecting data on daily travel behaviour, journey purpose, as well as information on where their home and work or study location was, whether they have access to public transport, and socio-economic factors.

The team performed statistical modelling of the data to assess how changes in active mobility, the ‘main mode’ of daily travel, and cycling frequency influenced mobility-related CO2 emissions over time and space.

Lead researcher Dr Christian Brand , from the University of Oxford, said: “We found that those who switch just one trip per day from car driving to cycling reduce their carbon footprint by about 0.5 tonnes over a year, representing a substantial share of average per capita CO2 emissions.

“If just 10% of the population were to change travel behaviour, the emissions savings would be around 4% of lifecycle CO2 emissions from all car travel.”

The largest benefits from shifts from car to active travel were for business travel, followed by social and leisure trips, and commuting to work or place of study. These results also showed that those who already cycled had 84% lower CO2 emissions from all daily travel than non-cyclists.

Doing something about climate change

For the cities in this study, average per capita (per person) CO2 emissions per year from transport (excluding international flights and shipping) ranged between 1.8 tonnes in the UK to 2.7 tonnes in Austria. According to the Global Carbon Atlas, average per capita CO2 emissions from all activities were eight tonnes per year in the UK.

Dr Brand said: “A typical response to the climate crisis is to ‘do something’, such as planting more trees, or switching to electric vehicles. While these are important and effective, they are neither sufficient nor fast enough to meet our ambitious climate targets.

“Doing more of a good thing combined with doing less of a bad thing – and doing it now – is much more compliant with a ‘net zero’ pathway and preserving our planet’s and our own futures. Switching from car to active mobility is one thing to do, which would make a real difference, and we show here how good this can be in cities.”

Multiple benefits

The team say this will not only be good for the climate, but also for reducing social inequalities and improving public health and quality of urban life in a post-COVID-19 world.

Dr de Nazelle said: “To improve active travel take-up, cities across the world will need to increase investment in high-quality infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists and incorporate policy and planning concepts that require a fairly radical rethink of our cities.

“This is in turn likely to reduce inequalities, because the concepts involve mixing different population groups rather than maintaining the model of residential zoning by socioeconomic status currently used.”

Fitness

Treatment options to help overcome knee pain for sports enthusiasts

“Sports-related pain should be evaluated quickly, especially when it’s difficult to put weight on the knee, swelling occurs or there is restricted range of motion,” said Dr. Alexander Meininger, orthopedic surgeon and MACI consultant.

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Millions of people experience chronic pain, with knee pain among the most common. Athletes and active adults know the impact activities like running and skiing can have on their knees, but when chronic knee pain makes it difficult to do those activities, or even day-to-day tasks like walking up the stairs, people may often face challenges.

According to the journal “Cartilage,” unlike other tissues, cartilage does not repair itself and, without proper treatment, can worsen over time and become more difficult to treat. However, options like FDA-approved knee cartilage repair surgery MACI (autologous cultured chondrocytes on porcine collagen membrane) uses a patient’s cells to help repair cartilage defects and may help alleviate knee pain.

“Sports-related pain should be evaluated quickly, especially when it’s difficult to put weight on the knee, swelling occurs or there is restricted range of motion,” said Dr. Alexander Meininger, orthopedic surgeon and MACI consultant.

Justin Keys, a former patient of Meininger and avid skier, knows that the long-term outcomes of knee cartilage surgery can be worth the short-term sacrifices. After several injuries, including an ACL injury, Keys struggled with most activities except walking on flat, paved surfaces. After consulting with Meininger, Keys chose knee cartilage repair to help get back to his active lifestyle.

Keys considered whether to manage the injury as-is or choose MACI and undergo rehabilitation to potentially get back to his favorite activities in the future. He knew he could no longer use short-term relief methods and had to address his pain with a treatment to help provide lasting relief.

For athletes like Keys who want to fix knee pain, it’s important to consider these steps:

Discuss Options with Your Doctor

Patients should talk to their doctors and undergo an MRI to help assess the internal structures of the knee. Meininger recommends patients and their doctors discuss options for long-term knee restoration health, preserving function for future decades and recognizing the short-term sacrifice.

Set Yourself Up for Success

Experts like Meininger suggest patients take steps ahead of surgery to help their recovery.

“The important thing is to be as fit as possible and use the preseason months to undergo surgery and rehab,” Meininger said.

Patients can take steps to prep their home for recovery, which may include:

  • Bringing necessities down from hard-to-reach shelves
  • Moving furniture to ensure clear pathways
  • Installing shower safety handles to minimize potential falls

The Road to Rehab and Recovery

Rehabilitation takes time and everyone’s experience is unique. It can be as much of a mental challenge as it is physical. Committing to a physical therapy regime, staying hydrated and eating well are important aspects to support recovery. Patients should talk to their doctors with questions and before starting any exercises.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Do not use if you are allergic to antibiotics such as gentamicin or materials from cow or pig; have severe osteoarthritis of the knee, other severe inflammatory conditions, infections or inflammation in the bone joint and other surrounding tissue or blood clotting conditions; had knee surgery in the past 6 months, not including surgery for obtaining a cartilage biopsy or a surgical procedure to prepare your knee for a MACI implant; or cannot follow a rehabilitation program post-surgery.

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Fitness

6 Exercise safety tips

Now, as social restrictions ease, you may find yourself stepping up your workouts, whether you’re training for an event or working to improve your game in a recreational league.

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In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, many Americans are more aware of their health and wellness. Now, as social restrictions ease, you may find yourself stepping up your workouts, whether you’re training for an event or working to improve your game in a recreational league.

Sprains, strains and injuries can happen to even the most seasoned athletes. When you’re testing your limits, even a minor injury can alter your performance. Consider products and supports like these from the CURAD Performance Series product line, available at Walmart and Amazon, to help you get back in the game quickly and safely.

Find more resources to support your fitness journey at CURAD.com.

Keep Dirt and Germs Away

The more active you are, the harder it can be to find a bandage that stays with you all day or all game long.

Spray Away Sore Spots

Controlling mild pain can help keep you at the top of your game, and a topical analgesic works fast to heal common pain brought on by fitness and exercise, such as pain in knees, feet, shoulders and backs.

Put Pain in the Past

When recovery becomes the name of the game and pain relief is needed after daily workouts or bodily injuries. Cold packs work to heal bruises, reduce swelling and relieve headaches and general pain points while microwavable heat packs provide satisfying heat therapy to address sore and stiff joints, muscle cramps and tension.

Reduce Impact of Knee Strain

Weak, injured or arthritic knees can come from many sources, including tendonitis and a wide range of conditions that result in strain or overuse. An adjustable band can provide support for on-field sports and during workouts or everyday activities.

Manage Pain and Relieve Pressure

If you participate in endurance and strength exercises or certain sports, you may ask a lot of your joints. Kinesiology tape can be configured a multitude of ways to help reduce pain and improve blood circulation, as well as relieve tension and pressure.

Control Back Strain

When your back is strained, your body and performance can suffer. A mild or moderate sprain can benefit from strong support and compression.

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Fitness

Exercise can provide relief for dry, itchy eyes

A significant increase in tear secretion and tear film stability after participating in aerobic exercise can be another remedy for relieving dry, itchy eyes.

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Photo by Quinten de Graaf from Unsplash.com

A team led by researchers from the University of Waterloo discovered that a significant increase in tear secretion and tear film stability after participating in aerobic exercise can be another remedy for relieving dry, itchy eyes. 

Every time we blink, our eyes are covered in tear film—an essential protective coating necessary for maintaining healthy ocular function. Healthy tear film comprises three layers–oil, water, and mucin–that work together to hydrate the ocular surface and protect against infection-causing irritants like dust or dirt.

When any part of the tear film becomes unstable, the ocular surface can develop dry spots, causing eye symptoms like itchiness or stinging and burning sensations.

“With so much of our activity tied to screen usage, dry eye symptoms are becoming increasingly common,” said Heinz Otchere, a PhD candidate in vision science at Waterloo. “Instead of having to use eye drops or other alternative treatments, our study aimed to determine if remaining physically active can be an effective preventative measure against dryness.”

Fifty-two participants were divided into two groups—athlete and non-athlete—to participate in an exercise session. Participants in the athlete group exercised at least five times per week, while non-athlete participants exercised no more than once per week. Researchers, which included experts from the University of Cape Coast in Ghana, performed visual examinations before and five minutes after each exercise session, where tear secretion and tear break-up time were assessed.

While participants in the athlete group showed the largest increase, Otchere says all participants experienced a meaningful boost in tear quantity and tear film stability after the exercise session. 

“It can be challenging for people to regularly exercise when the demand is there to work increasingly longer hours in front of screens,” Otchere said. “However, our findings show physical activity can be really important for not just our overall well-being, but for our ocular health too.”

The study, Differential effect of maximal incremental treadmill exercise on tear secretion and tear film stability in athletes and non-athletes, was co-authored by Otchere, the University of Cape Coast’s Samuel Abokyi, Sekyere Nyamaah, and Michael Ntodie, and Ghana’s Our Lady of Grace Hospital’s Yaw Osei Akoto. It was recently published in the Experimental Eye Research journal.

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